[Editor's Note: Here at ProSource, we're always working tirelessly to make sure the ProSource customer experience is productive, beneficial, successful, and enjoyable. Usually that means ensuring each and every product is sourced from the highest-grade raw materials, created according to the strictest manufacturing protocols, sold at the lowest prices conceivable, and shipped to you at lightning speed. In the next few weeks, however, we're going to be addressing a new and exciting area of product improvement.
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Bodybuilding's elite line of super-premium sports nutrition products is getting an elite new look worthy of its status in the industry and among serious athletes. And what better place to start the roll-out of our new package design than with ProSource Creatine Monohydrate, the long-established category leader? ProSource's Creatine is 100% sourced from Creapure creatine monohydrate, the world's best, as manufactured by AlxChem of Germany. Its superior micro-crystalline consistency allows for the swiftest absorption into muscle tissue, for greater cell volumization and consequent strength increase. Starting today, its new design reflects that unsurpassed superiority!
Creatine has been validated in more clinical studies than any other supplement, and now, to examine the science in greater depth, we're passing the baton to Anna Lepeley, PhD. Take it away, Anna!]
the world of bodybuilding and athletics, where there are as many
differing opinions as there are athletes, there's one subject upon which
every athlete can agree. When it comes to creatine, one product towers
over all others in bioavailability, potency, and efficacy. That creatine
creatine monohydrate, and it's the
creatine you'll find in a superior-quality product like ProSource
brand Creatine Monohydrate
, which is sourced from 100%
is 100% creatine monohydrate, the most effective and soluble form of
creatine, and is the ultimate complement to your hard work at the gym
and/or on the field. Free of additives and impurities,
stands behind its name, delivering a
pure, untainted form of creatine monohydrate.
Creatine supplementation has grown increasingly
popular since its introduction into the supplement industry in the early
1990s. The growing popularity of creatine monohydrate was
accompanied by a growing number of supporting clinical research studies,
making it the most scientifically-examined form of creatine to this
day. Unfortunately, the quality of many creatine products
began to suffer as other forms of creatine started being introduced into
Many supplement companies
will cut corners in their budget by outsourcing cheaper [potentially
cross-contaminated] ingredients from other countries, sacrificing the
purity and quality of the creatine with less effective forms of creatine
and fillers. Other companies introduce unproven, buffered
forms of creatine, and hype them to the skies, despite the complete lack
of clinical data. Then they jack up their prices accordingly.
Unfortunately, you're literally flushing all your
money down the toilet with many of these products, peeing them out (in
the form of creatinine), with little to none of it going to your
provides you with
the highest quality of creatine monohydrate, delivering creatine
straight to your muscles. And, in the case of ProSource
, you can get your
at a price you can be excited about.
The Science Behind
Creatine is a naturally occurring
nitrogenous compound stored primarily in skeletal muscle in the form of
phosphocreatine [phosphorylated creatine] and free
creatine.(1,2) Phosphocreatine (PCr) aids in the production of
energy for the body, particularly high-intensity, short-duration
exercise of anaerobic nature such as weightlifting or
sprinting. Exercise of this nature relies largely on the
phosphagen energy system (also known as the ATP-PC system).
The ATP-PC system produces energy at the fastest out of the all other
energy systems (anaerobic glycolysis, aerobic glycolysis,
beta-oxidation); however, its duration is the shortest.
During high-intensity exercise, muscle
contraction is fueled via splitting of the bond holding adenosine
triphosphate (ATP) together, releasing energy and creating an
accumulation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) as a byproduct.
Intramuscular PCr stores quickly regenerate ATP by donating its
phosphate to ADP, catalyzed by the enzyme, creatine phosphokinase
(CPK). Prolonged, repeated muscle contractions of
high-intensity inevitably lead to fatigue once ATP and PCr levels become
low. Resynthesis of ATP at a rate fast enough to supply the
energy demands of high-intensity exercise depends on PCr stores. Thus,
once PCr stores become depleted, the ability to maintain maximum-effort
ceases and ATP is produced at a slower rate via other metabolic pathways
(i.e. anaerobic glycolysis) depending on the nature of
exercise. Therefore, increasing intramuscular PCr stores is
conducive to maintaining ATP turnover rates during exercise that require
maximal muscular strength or power.(3)
production of creatine occurs in the liver via conversion of arginine,
glycine and methionine.(4) Dietary creatine has a high bioavailability
and passes through the digestive system intact into the blood stream to
muscle as PCr. Exogenous creatine may be obtained through dietary
sources like fish (i.e. herring, salmon, tuna) and red meat (i.e. farmed
meat, wild game). The amount of meat and fish consumption, however,
required to elicit an ergogenic benefit may not be convenient, practical
or cost-efficient. For example, a 1.1 kg of raw steak
contains 5 grams of creatine.(3) Creatine monohydrate (CM)
powder, however, provides a practical, convenient and cost-efficient
method of increasing intramuscular PCr, while also facilitating
manipulation of dosage.
monohydrate is the most extensively studied form of creatine.
One of the most consumed dietary supplements, creatine monohydrate has
consistently demonstrated successful increases in PCr stores following
acute and chronic consumption.(1,3,5,6) Research has also demonstrated
significant increases in strength performance resultant of increased PCr
stores.(7,8) Additional supporting research has observed significant
increases in strength performance as a result of both, short- and
long-term creatine monohydrate intake.(9,10) Izquierdo (et al.11) found
in lower body strength
and power output, as well as
repeated-sprint performance and jumping ability in a fatigued state,
when male subjects underwent a five-day CM loading phase.
Additional literature further supports the advantageous effects of CM
intake, observing enhancements in various indices of exercise
performance (i.e. cycling power, bench press repetition volume, swimming
How to Use Creatine -- What Research
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Both acute (five-day load) and chronic
(lower/maintenance dose) methods of creatine consumption have shown
significant, favorable effects on body composition, increasing lean
muscle mass.(8-10) Research examining the chronic consumption of
creatine has demonstrated significant increases in lean muscle mass
accompanied by significant decreases in body fat. Creatine
loading (e.g. five grams, four times a day for five days) elicits the
most dramatic increase in PCr stores. Lower creatine doses
(i.e. 5-10 grams per day), however, have also demonstrated significant
increases in parameters associated with enhancement of high-intensity,
short-duration physical activity/exercise. (16-19) A long-term, lower
dose of creatine intake increases PCr stores to the same extent as with
loading, however, at a gradual rate.(6)
It is common
practice to initiate a creatine regimen with a loading phase followed by
a maintenance phase (10,20) or start with a [lower] maintenance dose
alone. It has been reported that creatine loading is
associated with an increase in body weight of approximately 2-4
pounds.(21) Therefore, creatine loading may not be ideal for athletes
whose performance may be negatively affected by weight gain (i.e.
running, swimming).(22) Initiating creatine intake with a long-term,
lower dose provides the ergogenic benefits while avoiding the potential
for the [minor] adverse effects (i.e. gastrointestinal distress) and
weight gain that have been reported with loading/high dose.(23-25)
Candow et al.(17) reported greater muscle gains from resistance training
when creatine was combined with a superior-quality protein
such as NytroWhey
, versus creatine alone. Thus,
incorporating protein and creatine in your nutrient-timing regimen may
provide optimal anabolic effects.
Creatine and Resistance
Creatine monohydrate optimizes
resistance-training adaptations via augmentation of satellite cell
proliferation and increased myonuclei within skeletal muscle fibers,
both translating to enhanced muscle hypertrophy. In response to
physiological stimuli (i.e. high-intensity resistance exercise/strength
training) skeletal muscle regenerates and repairs itself with the help
of satellite cells. Satellite cells are the resident stem
cells located along the peripheral of muscle fibers (between the basal
lamina and sarcolemma of the muscle fiber). (26) Upon disruption of the
basal lamina (i.e. resistance exercise-induced muscle damage), satellite
cells proliferate, generating myoblasts for the purpose of muscle
growth, repair and regeneration.(27) Thus, myonuclei count increases
occur concomitantly with satellite cell proliferation, promoting
additional satellite cell concentration to accommodate to the increased
number of muscle cells.(28) The more satellite cells you have, the more
muscle cells you will acquire, translating to an increase in
cross-sectional areas of muscle fiber size.
al.29 found that creatine monohydrate (7-day loading phase followed by a
15-week maintenance phase [of 6 grams per day]) intake significantly
increased myonuclei concentration per muscle fiber and amplified the
satellite cell count greater than resistance training alone.
Hence, creatine monohydrate consumption is complementary to the
hypertrophic effects of resistance training, increasing muscle fiber
size to a greater extent than expected. In addition, creatine
monohydrate supplementation, in combination with heavy resistance
training, has also demonstrated significant enhancements in myosin heavy
chain protein synthesis.(30)
intake, in combination with resistance training, has also been
associated with increases in insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1), an
anabolic hormone known to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy.
Burke (et al.31) found significant increases in IGF-1 following 8 weeks
of creatine monohydrate consumption, combined with resistance training,
among male and females subjects. Not surprisingly,
vegetarians, who typically have low initial creatine stores, showed the
greatest response to creatine in this study, experiencing the greatest
increase in lean mass compared to non-vegetarians. Vegetarians
are often classified as "responders" to creatine supplementation due to
their lack of creatine in diet, thereby, increasing sensitivity and
dramatic responses to
Creatine and Women
Previous research has
found negligible effects of creatine on females supported by the theory
that they may be classified as "nonresponders".(33)
Nonresponders may be characterized by having substantial total creatine
levels (free creatine and PCr), a higher type I to type II muscle fiber
ratio, smaller muscle cross-sectional area and/or lower fat-free
mass.(2,7) Female muscle composition, typically, encompasses a
greater size distribution of Type I to Type II (IIa and IIx) muscle
fibers.(34) This may pose as a deterrent for women, and men with
nonresponder characteristics, seeking to benefit from creatine
supplementation. However, the aforementioned traits simply
suggest that the nonresponders may not respond to creatine loading, but
may benefit from long-term, lower-dose creatine supplementation.
Research findings classifying females as
nonresponders is inconsistent. A number of studies have
observed increases in PCr stores, increases in lean mass, decreases in
body fat and improvements in strength and high-intensity exercise
capacity in female subjects (including non-vegetarians) assigned to
loading and maintenance doses of creatine monohydrate. (20,35-38)
Research has also observed creatine loading without increases in body
weight in female subjects.(36) Creatine monohydrate provides
an abundance of benefits that are not gender-exclusive.
Benefits of Creatine:
In-and-Out of the Weight Room
In addition to the
consistent research supporting creatine monohydrate's efficacy for
enhancing body composition and weightlifting/athletic performance,
creatine also provides benefit to brain function. Rae (et
al.39) observed significant improvements in working memory and
performance among young, adult vegetarians assigned to 5 grams of
creatine monohydrate a day for six weeks. Recent research has
also observed significant improvements when creatine monohydrate was
administered to patients with major
Creatine is also of great benefit
for the elderly whose total creatine stores in skeletal muscle decline
with age. Creatine monohydrate consumption has shown to
improve physical functional capacity (i.e. promote skeletal muscle
hypertrophy, increase strength, increase muscular endurance, promote
movement speed, delay neuromuscular fatigue)(42-44), supporting optimal
health and independence among the elderly.
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often-overlooked benefit of creatine monohydrate in the realm of sports
nutrition is its contributory role in protecting the integrity of
cells. Creatine monohydrate is an antioxidant that has
exhibited direct scavenging of reactive oxygen and nitrogen
species.(45) This has lead to increased attention in medical
research; examining creatine monohydrate intake and its positive effects
on diseases associated with oxidative stress (i.e. Duchenne muscular
dystrophy, Parkinson's disease).(46,47)
With so many
creatine products to choose from it becomes difficult for consumers to
know which creatine is best. Some products will contain
various forms of creatine (i.e. creatine ethyl ester, creatine pyruvate,
creatine citrate). The efficacy and safety of these other
forms of creatine, however, remains in question. Other forms
of creatine lack the abundance of data to support the efficacy,
bioavailability and safety demonstrated by research analyzing creatine
monohydrate.(48) Spillane et al.(49) revealed superior bioavailability
and increases in intramuscular creatine stores with creatine monohydrate
when compared to creatine ethyl ester. Creatine ethyl ester
significantly increased creatinine levels, indicating increased
Nothing Compares to
the costs, questionable ingredients and overall dubious quality of
other forms of creatine and buy a pure and reliable creatine
monohydrate, like CreaPureTM
, as found in
ProSource Creatine Monohydrate.
provides a superior form of 100%
creatine monohydrate that surpasses its competitors; free of the
impurities found in other brands (i.e. dihydrotriazine, creatinine,
sodium, and dicyandiamide). Unlike multi-ingredient products
that typically contain an undisclosed amount of creatine,
allows you to successfully manipulate
your dose of creatine intake at your discretion, without interfering
with other components of your overall supplement regimen. When
you buy ProSource brand creatine, you get
an ultra-low cost without sacrificing
the integrity and efficacy of the product. Achieve gains in
exercise/sport performance while reaping the aforementioned benefits of
creatine monohydrate intake with
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(2011). Analysis of the efficacy, safety, regulatory status of novel
forms of creatine. Amino Acids. 40(5):1369-1383.
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(2009). The effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation combined
with heavy resistance training on body composition, muscle performance,
and serum and muscle creatine levels. JISSN. 6:6.