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Betaine is a nitrogen containing compound and methyl derivative. It's role as a potential ergogenic aid has been only been looked at in a few studies,
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 but that research has revealed some interesting findings. Betaine's principle ole is an osmolyte whereby it protects cells during periods of dehydration by increasing the water content of cells. Betaine may also play a role in choline metabolism and other methyl donating reactions which impact metabolism. My colleagues at the University of Connecticut performed a study to test the effects of betaine on strength and power performance. After performing a battery of performance tests, healthy resistance-trained men were supplemented for 14 days with either betaine (1.25 grams twice per day) in 300 mL of Gatorade or a Placebo consisting of Gatorade with no betaine.   They then performed the same battery of tests. After a washout period they crossed over and did the same 14 day supplementation protocol with the other supplement.  Compared to placebo, 2 weeks of Betaine supplementation improved certain performance parameters such as bench throw power, isometric bench press force, vertical jump power, and isometric squat force. Although precise mechanistic details remain unclear, these results provide evidence that betaine is an ergogenic aid for the neuromuscular system.

  •     Lee EC, Maresh CM, Kraemer WJ, Yamamoto LM, Hatfield DL, Bailey BL, Armstrong LE, Volek JS, McDermott BP, Craig SA. Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Jul 19;7:27.