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Research & Development

Sure, it's easy to believe all the hype on a product's label, but how do you know if that hype is backed up by scientifically proven effectiveness without trial and error? Easy: Check out these research articles to read about the clinical trials and studies conducted on some of your favorite products and supplement categoriesR. You'll find these research articles easy-to-understand and they'll help educate you on your supplements and dietary choices.

Should You Take Creatine Before or After Training?
If you want to maximize gains in muscle mass while resistance training, you should be supplementing with creatine. No other supplement has as many studies supporting its ability to augment gains in muscle mass and strength in response to resistance training. There are, however, varying opinions as to the optimal
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The Value of Adding Leucine to Whey
The essential amino acid leucine is a major driver of the anabolic response to protein ingestion. Whey is naturally high in leucine which makes it a preferred protein source for promoting anabolism.  Most whey protein contains about 10% leucine; a 20 gram serving of whey protein delivers 2 grams of
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Does It Make Anabolic Sense to Eat All Your Daily Protein in One Meal?
You have dialed in how much protein you need each day, but another important factor relates to how you spread that protein out. Conventional wisdom suggests that you should consume multiple smaller doses of protein, which makes intuitive sense. Spacing smaller protein meals over the day should hypothetically take advantage
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Soy Protein Intake May Adversely Affect Testosterone Levels in Men
In evaluating the best protein for promoting anabolism and recovery, most research has focused on measures of muscle protein synthesis.  That research clearly distinguishes whey over other protein sources such as soy protein.  Another important aspect of the recovery process is related to promoting an optimal hormonal environment, especially as
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Cheer Up With Tongkat Ali
Cheer Up With Tongkat Ali! Everyone experiences highs and lows as a result of what life throws at you.  A recent study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition examined the impact of Tongkat Ali, a botanical commonly referred to as Malaysian Gingseng for its ability
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Green Tea Extract Reduces Oxidative Damage to Muscle
Intense exercise puts stress upon all parts of the body which can challenge recovery and increase oxidative stress.  A four-week study in 35 male college students had all participants follow a strength training program while half of them supplemented their diet with a green tea extract and the other half
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Maximize Increases in Creatine with Carbohydrate
Heavy strength training places great demands on the short-term energy systems found within our body.  To maximize performance, athletes need to make dietary choices that maximize the levels of both phosphocreatine and glycogen within their muscles.  Supplementation with creatine monohydrate is extremely popular and has been supported by hundreds of
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Maximize the Effects of Beta Alanine
Conclusive evidence has shown that beta alanine supplementation increases muscle carnosine levels, leading to increased power production and decreased fatigue while training. The main mechanism by which high muscle carnosine levels improve muscle function and performance is through its ability to buffer skeletal muscle pH (acidity) during high intensity/fatiguing exercise.
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Minty Fresh Breath and Increased Workout Performance?
Can having fresh breath help you train harder? Well, perhaps not to the degree that beta alanine of some BioQuest AndroFury might, but based on a recent study published in the Journal of the International Society for Sports Nutrition, fresh breath may just be a side effect to the performance
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Vitamin D Combats Fatigue
According to current studies, most athletes are vitamin D deficient, which may impair muscle function and performance. Because we get an abundance of our vitamin D from the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin during sun exposure, vitamin D deficiency has become more prevalent as we protect ourselves from the
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The Thermogenic Properties of Whey
Whey Protein and Essential Aminos During Caloric Restriction Help Burn More Fat The amount of research supportive of increasing your intake of high quality protein to facilitate a greater maintenance of your body composition or to facilitate improvements continues to grow.  While the majority of this research has focused upon
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The Case for Combining Whey, Casein, and Soy Protein
In the battle of the best protein sources, new research points to the possibility that a blend offers the best approach.  Whey protein gets a lot of attention because gram for gram it has more branched chain amino acids, especially leucine, and it is digested quickly.  These qualities result in
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Growth Hormone Response Boosting Cocktail
New Study Links Whey Protein Consumption to Growth Hormone Support We all know the value in drinking whey protein isolate and fast sugars after exercise, but recent research illustrates that this cocktail may be the ideal "half-time" elixir for boosting growth hormone. Research from the UK has shown that drinking
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Casein and Whey Protein: Your All-Day Ticket to Promoting Positive Training Adaptations
For exercising athletes and in particular those who desire to maximize strength and recovery and promote noticeable increases in muscle mass due to your heavy resistance training program, the importance of adequate calories and nutrition is first and foremost.  Most discussions, however, center a great deal upon protein intake with
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Caution With Calcium?
Over the past several years calcium supplementation has become popular for bodybuilders. This makes sense, as calcium plays a key role in fat loss, muscle contraction, and testosterone production. Calcium supplementation may be necessary for bodybuilders, since most limit their dairy intake (a major source of calcium) and calcium is
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Exercise and Androgen Receptor Increase
Increasing how your body responds to exercise training is like a chess match.  You must balance factors related to your recovery, exercise bouts and nutrition to result in a situation that can facilitate positive improvements in how your body responds.  For years, changes in testosterone and other hormones have been
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Using Whey Protein to Minimize
Soreness-Induced Strength Loss

Everyone should understand that whey protein is a high quality source of protein found in milk.  Whey digests quickly, causes rapid increases in amino acid levels in the blood, stimulates increases in insulin, minimizes increases in components of muscle breakdown and of course stimulates rapid and massive increases in muscle
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Leucine Supplementation and the
Stimulation of Muscle Protein Translation

As a whole and across the world, scientists are examining to an unbelievable extent the major factors that direct, begin and sustain the building of muscle protein. On the exercise side, heavy resistance training that incorporates heavy weights, high volume and lots of muscle involved will most certainly do the
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Pre-Workouts and Improvements in Both Physical and Mental Processes
Nutrient timing has become widely accepted as an important consideration for both competing athletes and non-competing folks who hope to increase their strength and improve their body composition.  While carbohydrate loading was the first nutrient timing strategy to be used, the post-exercise anabolic window has also been researched heavily.  Most
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Ribose, Carbohydrates and Protein Combine to Enhance Training Adaptations
Looking for ways to get a little extra out of your exercise training?  Don't want to be the guy that keeps fatter, weaker and smaller?  Recent research from the University of Nebraska reported some exciting outcomes for a combination of carbohydrate, protein and ribose (Cramer, Housh et al. 2012).  In
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CreaPure Creatine Monohydrate is Still Your Best Bet
Unless you have been living under a rock, the value of supplementing creatine monohydrate in your normal diet has nearly countless benefits.  For starters, creatine supplementation can enhance the phosphocreatine stores found in muscle by 30-40%; this increase has been shown by research to greatly enhance an athlete’s ability to
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MSM: A new training aid?
Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a commonly used supplement with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties; thus, it is generally taken to promote joint health. However, based on the same properties, recent research suggests that MSM may also be an erogogenic aid. In a recent pilot study, it was reported that exercise-trained subjects who
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Whey and antioxidant status
Let's face it; carrying extra body fat is not only unpleasing to the eye but also very unhealthy. Elevated body fat levels and associated oxidative stress can lead to cardiovascular problems that will shorten your life. If you are reading this, then you likely know the benefits of resistance training
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Stick with what you know
Creatine monohydrate is the one of the most studied and research backed supplements on the market. As such, we have come a long way in understanding how creatine works better than any other supplement in promoting strength and lean mass gains. : Jagim AR, Oliver JM, Sanchez A, Galvan E,
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Leucine dosing limits
Leucine, an essential and branched chain amino acid, has been recently shown to play a pivotal role in turning on protein synthesis, especially after resistance exercise. Although leucine makes up only a fraction of the body's proteins, its levels are known to decline by about 30% during strength training and
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Nutrient Timing and Delivering Nutrients During Your Workout
Nobody likes spinning their wheels.   Time is money after all and when research findings are available that allow you to be smarter and get more out of your training and nutrition efforts you should pay attention. In the last ten years, our knowledge base of nutrition and exercise has
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Pre-Exercise Amino Acid Levels in Conjunction with Resistance Exercise
A recent study from a productive group of exercise and nutrition researchers provides us with additional nuggets of information regarding how resistance exercise and nutrition interact to stimulate changes in muscle protein synthesis.    This study was unique because it manipulated how protein was given to the research participants in an
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Dosing with Whey and Leucine and Its Influence on Muscle Protein Synthesis
This isn't your first rodeo.  You have been resistance training for a while and you know that whey protein is important to put your body into a position where it can grow in response to the stimulus provided by your workouts.  You may also know or have heard that the
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Wide Ranging Positive Effects of Arginine
Arginine is an interesting amino acid that is technically classified as non-essential since our bodies can make it, but because it becomes limiting in many circumstances it is usually referred to as conditionally dispensable.  A wide range of studies have examined the effects of arginine supplementation of various aspects of
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Synephrine Boosts Metabolic Rate
Nutrients that raise metabolic rate hold promise in the battle against the bulge.  Although a wide array of nutrients show up in various thermogenic concoctions, few have been evaluated in research studies.  A unique compound isolated from peels of immature fruits may be key to sparking a sluggish metabolism. That
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Raspberry Ketones and Increased Parameters of Fat Metabolism
Ever think of eating more raspberries to help increase your body's ability to burn fat?  It turns out a key ingredient found in the tasty fruit has properties that a couple of preliminary studies suggest may help to increase fat breakdown and limit fat accumulation.  The substance itself is called
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Combining Fuxocxanthin and CLA to Target Fat Mass
A number of compounds are being investigated for their ability to favorably influence obesity and its associated negative health outcomes.  Conjugated linoleic acid is a group of geometric and positional isomers of the essential fatty acid linoleic acid that has been considered for several years for its ability to favorably
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Pay Attention to Rest Between REPS to Better Maintain Strength and Power During Your Workouts
A just-published study from sport scientists out of Appalachian State University bring to light the importance of the amount of rest between repetitions and how it can impact your ability to maintain strength and power through a typical set of heavy resistance training.  Several variables are critically important that all
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Whey Protein Isolate and Your Appetite
For years, headlines regarding whey protein isolate have been dominated by research illustrating its superiority as a protein source and its firm place in the diets of bodybuilders and athletes who desire to gain more lean mass and improve their body composition.  A great deal of this focus centers upon
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The Data Is In: Get Moving and Stay Moving
Recent findings from a major obesity conference revealed that the negative impact of prolonged sitting may be greater than the benefits achieved from being more active throughout the day or restricting your caloric intake.  While you cannot quite say that sitting down for prolonged periods will kill you, the evidence
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Casein and Whey Retain Their Unique Effects When Consumed Together
The concept that whey and casein, when consumed separately, represent fast and slow proteins is well established.  Whey increases muscle protein synthesis rapidly but the effect is short-lived, whereas casein delivers a lower but more sustained anabolic effect.  What has not been tested is whether these unique qualities of whey
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Boost Fat Loss with Green Tea
The catechins in green tea have been shown to possess a variety of bioactive functions including increased fat breakdown and thermogenesis.   But whether these metabolic effects associated with drinking green tea translate into greater fat loss remains less clear.  When British researchers had overweight men and women consume green tea
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Adding Leucine to Whey
Dose response studies indicate that about 25 grams of high quality intact protein delivers maximizes the increase in muscle protein synthesis.  Twenty five grams of whey protein contains about 3 grams of leucine.  Since leucine is the primary driver of muscle protein synthesis, it might be possible to elicit a
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WHEY BETTER THAN CASEIN IN OLDER MEN
While whey and casein are packaged together in milk, when isolated these two proteins have different effects. Whey is higher in some amino acids like leucine and it has a much faster rate of digestion and absorption compared to casein.  Casein has a unique slow digestion because of slowed gastric
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HOW MUCH WHEY SHOULD YOU CONSUME?
We have talked about the many qualities of whey that make it a preferred source of protein to consume after exercise such as its high content of essential amino acids (particularly leucine) and rapid absorption rate.   One question that has not received as much attention is how much whey delivers
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Can Caffeine or Protein Intake Influence Muscle Glycogen?
Are you a bodybuilder who resistance trains with high amounts of volume, little rest and high intensity?  Are you are an endurance athlete who participates in prolonged bouts of exercise several times per week or participate in events that may last several hours or span more than one day?    
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NAC and Its Ability to Resist Fatigue and Improve Performance
Optimal exercise performance is dependent upon a large number of factors.  Many of these are contingent upon other factors resulting in a labyrinth of items that all go into determining performance.  One of these factors which continues to get more and more interest from sport scientists is the production and
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Blueberry Ingestion and Favorable Changes in Metabolic Activity
A number of factors go into a successful diet and exercise program; two primary factors involve a healthy diet and a powerful exercise program.  Most of us know that no single food or workout program can magically get you to the gym, get you to lose weight and help you
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FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTATION HELPS BUILD STRENGTH
Polyunsaturated fats consist of two main types called omega 3 and omega 6.  Most Americans consume way too much omega 6 relative to omega 3. Fish and fish oils are the richest source of omega-3 fatty acids; the main two are called EPA and DHA.  Omega 3 fats have been
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BETA-ALANINE AND BICARBONATE COMBINATION ENHANCE PERFORMANCE
Fatigue during high-intensity exercise such as sprinting and weight lifting is linked to acid build up in the muscles and blood.  This is the so-called burning sensation you feel at the end of a hard bout of exercise.  Research aimed at finding nutritional strategies to help combat acid build-up, delay
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MERATRIM: Advanced New Herbal Formulation Delivers Dramatic Weight Loss Results
Researchers recently presented their stunning findings on a novel and exciting herbal weight loss formulation called Meratrim, at the 29th Annual Scientific Obesity Meeting in Orlando, Florida. Their report focused on the efficacy and tolerability of this synergistic formulation comprising the extracts Sphaeranthus indicus and Garcinia mangostana for weight management,
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Concentrated Fruit Juices and Reduction in Pain and Improvements in Range of Motion
Experiencing pain is a significant problem which afflicts millions of people worldwide on a daily basis. Research involving inflammation, arthritis and joint health continues at unprecedented levels, particularly as the age of our population continues to climb.  Maintaining an active lifestyle can help to offset the reductions in strength, flexibility,
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Ursolic Acid as an Aid to Prevent Obesity
Public health has become a primary concern of the United States and developed countries all across the world.  In particular, obesity has become a global challenge where government estimates from 2007-2008 suggest that 34.2% of Americans are overweight and 33.8% are obese (Ogden 2010).  While a number of things have
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Control oxidative stress with cherries!
Sour cherry juice has been sold as a potent antioxidant for years. Montmorency cherries are especially potent, as they contain high levels of flavonoids and anthocyanins, which have scientifically proven anti-inflammatory effects and act as potent antioxidants. Controlling oxidative stress during exercise has been a growing area of research, as
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Keep exercise-induced oxidative stress under control with lycopene
It is a well-known scientific fact that during heavy training your body is exposed to a substantial amount of oxidative stress. This is the result of exercise-induced increases in free radical production that can overwhelm the body's ability to get rid of them. Unfortunately, increased oxidative stress dampens the antioxidant
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More support for creatine monohydrate
Whether you are a strength athlete, a bodybuilder, or just interested in achieving a great physique, the importance of taking a high-quality creatine monohydrate supplement cannot be overstated.  Over the past few decades, the science backing creatine has been unequivocal and a recent article published in the Journal of the
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Time to reformulate sports drinks?
Over the past decade, the importance of protein supplementation in athletes has been a hot area of research. Generally, research on protein supplementation is geared toward understanding its role in strength and muscular development. However, more recently, scientists have been investigating how protein supplements may help with fatigue resistance during
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Sharpen Your Mind With Phosphatidylserine
Sure, you've used many supplements to impact your strength and muscle mass, but have you ever considered a supplement to improve your mental performance?  Certainly your need to think fast in the gym may not be that great, but what about on the practice field or competition?  Deciding more quickly
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Adding Caffeine To Boost Your Next Workout
Is there anything that caffeine can't do?  For starters, it's largely responsible for beginning the global work day.  People wonder what might happen if Greece or other European countries default on their debt, that would be nothing in comparison to what might happen if all of the caffeine disappeared in
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Extend your post-meal anabolic window
As bodybuilders and athletes we are always searching for the "dietary edge" that can ramp up anabolism (protein synthesis) and help us recover. It is well documented that after eating a protein rich meal, there is a substantial increase muscle protein synthesis that lasts for about 180 minutes upon cessation
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Testosterone boosting benefits of Tongkat Ali
Adequate testosterone levels are required for maximizing muscle growth, strength, energy, sexual performance, and overall wellbeing in males. Unfortunately, as we get older, testosterone levels start to decline. Science has shown that this decline starts as early as 30 years old, leading to what doctors call andropause (similar to menopause
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Keep anabolic during cardio by taking leucine-enriched essential amino acids!
Essential amino acids are those that cannot be synthesized in the body and, as a result, must be taken in the diet or with supplementation. We have known for years that the essential (and branched chain) amino acid leucine plays a significant role in turning on anabolism, especially after heavy
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Creatine can increase power in just one week!
Creatine monohydrate is the most science-backed sports supplement in history and its accolades make it one of the best bangs for your hard-earned buck. Past research has shown that long-term use of creatine is safe and increases strength and muscularity by providing energy substrates and by activating a number of
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CREATINE BUT NOT BETAINE ENHANCES MUSCLE CREATINE STORES AND PERFORMANCE
A large body of literature has clearly documented that creatine supplementation increases muscle stores of creatine and enhances high intensity exercise performance. Yet another study by Brazilian researchers recently confirmed these positive effects of creatine supplementation, but they addressed another important question related to betaine supplementation.  Betaine is involved in
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KRILL OIL: A HIGHLY BIOAVAILABLE SOURCE OF OMEGA 3 FATS
Sorting out how much and which types of fat to consume is more than bit complex. Within the polyunsaturated fats, there are two essential types called omega 3 and omega 6.  The actual requirement in humans is low at about ~1% of daily energy. Most Americans consume 10x the amount
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N-ACETYL CYSTEINE SUPPLEMENTATION ENHANCES ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND PERFORMANCE
Intense exercise causes oxygen consumption to increase and results in the production of highly reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS generated from exercise attacks lipids and other components of cells leading to muscle damage.  The body has various antioxidant defense systems that counteract ROS, but these protective defense systems can
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EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT BETA-ALANINE DOSING PROTOCOLS
Similar to creatine, muscle contains significant quantities of a substance called carnosine. Carnosine is a very important buffer in muscle, meaning that it helps to maintain a normal balance of acidity.  Fatigue during high-intensity exercise such as sprinting and weight lifting is linked to acid build up in the muscles
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ENDURANCE RECOVERY AND PERFORMANCE ENHANCED BY ADDING LEUCINE TO PROTEIN AND CARBS
In athletes consuming relatively high carbohydrate diets, there appears to be a benefit of adding protein to carbs during the post-exercise recovery period. There is some debate as to whether adding additional leucine enhances the effect beyond that typically found in most proteins. Moreover, most prior work only examined the
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WHEY SUPPLEMENT PRESERVES MUSCLE DURING WEIGHT LOSS
Caloric restriction usually leads to loss of both fat and lean tissue. It is desirable to preserve as much muscle tissue as possible during weight loss to preserve strength and performance. Whey protein supplementation may be an effective intervention to preserve lean tissue during weight loss owing to its high
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DHEA may keep you anabolic during stress
We all get stressed out now and again, but did you know that even acute stress could throw off your anabolic balance? Stress is known to increase the body's catabolic cortisol release and impair anabolic testosterone release. However, it has been recently shown that taking a DHEA supplement might just
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Maintain immunity with probiotics and train hard all winter!
Winter is coming and with it also comes flu and cold season. We all know that the incidence of upper respiratory-tract infections increase in the wintertime. This can be a real problem for athletes who spend a lot of time training indoors being constantly exposed to other people's germs. After
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Betain supplements reduce exercise fatigue
Betaine is a derivative of the amino acid glycine and exists in foods like wheat, beets, spinach, and shellfish. The body can also synthesize its own betaine through the oxidation of choline-containing compounds to assist in several important physiological functions in our bodies. Some of the more important roles of
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Support for caffeine!
There has been a recent surge of studies published on the ergogenic effects of caffeine. This is timely since caffeine makes up the backbone of most preworkout formulas on the market today. A most recent article published in the Journal of Applied Physiology investigated the effect of caffeine supplementation (6
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PROTEIN ADDED TO CARBS INCREASES CONTRACTILE MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
Endurance athletes are used to taking in a lot of carbohydrate after exercise to promote recovery of glycogen. It is becoming increasing apparent that they can benefit from protein as well. Studies indicate that high quality protein can stimulate muscle protein synthesis after both resistance and endurance exercise. With new
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LEUCINE-ENRICHED PROTEIN DRINK BOOSTS ANABOLISM
The optimal dose of protein to increase muscle protein synthesis after resistance exercise has been determined to be about 20 grams of high quality protein which contains approximately 10 grams of essential amino acids. Endurance exercise is a much different stimulus than resistance exercise and whether the same holds true
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PULSE VERSUS BOLUS INGESTION OF WHEY PROTEIN
When you eat protein it is digested and absorbed into the blood as amino acids. One of the questions that remain unclear is the effect of rate of digestion/absorption of proteins. One of the clear distinctions between whey and casein is the digestion rate.  Whey is absorbed quick resulting in
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Recover better with L-Carnitine L-Tartrate
Clinical research has shown that LCLT increases fatty acid oxidation and reduces free radical production, which may prevent drops in strength during exercise. As well, there is relatively recent evidence that daily LCLT supplementation after resistance exercise results in increased androgen (testosterone) receptor content in skeletal muscle. There are also
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LCLT and Carbs Increase Work Output
In a recent article published in the Journal of Physiology, it was shown that oral ingestion of LCLT and carbohydrates can significantly boost skeletal muscle carnitine stores and improve exercise performance.  On 3 separate experimental sessions (separated by 3 months), 14 healthy male athletes were asked to perform 3 cycle
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Leucine increases strength
In a recent article published in the International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, scientists from the UK and Australia investigated the benefits of daily leucine supplementation combined with 12 weeks of resistance training.  In this double-blinded and placebo controlled study, healthy untrained men were assigned to one of two
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Preworkout supplements boost anaerobic capacity
Preworkout drinks commonly contain a blend of stimulants and strength promoting ingredients that are marketed as synergists. However, until recently, there has been little to no research done to test the acute effectiveness of these increasingly popular supplements. In a recent study, published in Nutrition Research, scientists from the University
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GREEN TEA AND CAFFEINE BOOST METABOLISM AND FAT BURNING
There have been a moderate number of studies investigating the effects of catechins in green tea and caffeine on metabolic rate and fat burning. In respect to green tea,   a paper published several years ago showed that intake of caffeine with 270 mg of EGCG, the main polyphenol in green
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BETA-ALANINE ENHANCES BODY COMPOSITION AND PERFORMANCE IN TRAINED ATHLETES
Similar to creatine, muscle contains significant quantities of a substance called carnosine. Carnosine is a very important buffer in muscle, meaning that it helps to maintain a normal balance of acidity. Fatigue during high-intensity exercise such as sprinting and weight lifting is linked to acid (hydrogen ion) build up in
read more

FISH OIL ENHANCES BODY COMPOSITION
There are many reasons to seriously consider ensuring you get appropriate doses of fish oil in your diet for general health and recovery. Unless you consume deep water fish on a regular basis, there is a good chance you may not be getting adequate intakes. Beyond reducing your risk for
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WHEY BETTER FOR WEIGHT LOSS
Whey protein may be an ideal source of protein during weight loss due to its nutrient partitioning effects working to enhance fat loss andpreserve lean tissue. A distinguishing feature of whey is the complex protein source with a high prevalen ce of essential amino acids. Whey also contains a higher
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Fenugreek
In a double-blinded and placebo controlled study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, scientists studied how fenugreek supplementation combined with 8 weeks of resistance training would impact strength and body composition. Subjects were healthy resistance-trained males who had not taken any ergogenic supplements for at
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Creatine-a non-stimulant based wake-up pill?
A study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, compared the effects of a single dose creatine or caffeine on the execution of a complex repeated rugby passing skill, with and without sleep deprivation. In this randomized placebo-controlled trial, rugby players were placed into placebo, creatine,
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Get large and lean with fish oil!
Scientists from Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania conducted a study that looked at the effects of fish oil supplementation on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, and cortisol levels in healthy men and women. In this doubled blinded study, baseline (pre-supplementation) measures of RMR, body composition, and cortisol levels were completed
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Probiotics and oxidative stress
A study published in Current Microbiology, has shown that probiotic supplements substantially prevent oxidative stress under periods of intense training. Subjects were 24 male cycling athletes, who were undergoing 4 weeks of intense off-season training. They were split into two groups, where one was given probiotics and the other nothing
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GINSENG REDUCES MUSCLE DAMAGE
One of the most well recognized herbs is ginseng. Panax ginseng is widely touted as enhancing physical performance and health including sexual dysfunction, type II diabetes, and fatigue. Not surprisingly, ginseng shows up as a common ingredient in many energy drinks. The results of studies investigating the effects of ginseng
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HOW OFTEN SHOULD YOU TAKE CREATINE?
The popularity of creatine supplementation has skyrocketed over the last 15 years. The positive effects shown in so many studies have resulted in many different dosing methods. Early studies used a loading phase that involved taking approximately 20 grams per day divided into 5 gram servings for a week. This
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HIGH DOSE LEUCINE BEFORE AND AFTER WORKOUTS
Leucine is one of more than a dozen amino acids needed to synthesize proteins and build muscle in our body.  Researchers have known about leucine for decades, but exciting new research has shed a new and broader light on this important health-promoting amino acid. Much of protein's benefits may be
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CREATINE IS SAFE, EVEN FOR KIDNEYS
The evidence supporting a positive effect of creatine supplementation on high intensity performance can be described as nothing short of overwhelming. Creatine supplementation augments the muscle size and strength gains consequent to resistance training. Creatine is also legal, relatively inexpensive, and easy to implement into a training and nutrition program.
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Arginine and anabolism
For some time now we have known that pre-exercise arginine supplementation leads to increased vascularity, great pumps, and intense workouts. Some research claims that these effects are due to increased production of the potent vasodilator nitric oxide (NO).  For the most part, NO's effects on muscle growth and strength have been
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Proteases for muscle building
Proteases are proteolytic enzymes that break down proteins into amino acids. This break down of proteins represents the first steps in catabolism. For bodybuilders it should seem counter intuitive to take a supplement that induces a catabolic state, but a relatively recent study tells a different story. In a study
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Astaxanthin: A new fatburner?
Astaxanthin is a carotenoid that is prevalent in algae, fatty fish, yeast, and crustaceans. Like most carotenoids, it is a powerful antioxidant and exhibits blood pressure lowering, immune system boosting and anti-inflammatory properties. In a recent study published in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Japan scientists investigated the effects of
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Glutamine and Myostatin
Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the human body and serves as the primary amino acid pool for the body when it needs it (e.g., under stress conditions like dieting, heavy training, injury, etc.).  Over the years there has been great interest in understanding the pathways that mediate
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CHONDROITIN IMPROVES KNEE HEALTH
In humans, an impressive number of studies over the last 22 years have provided relatively consistent findings on the safety and efficacy of glucosamine and chondroitin, major components of joint cartilage, on joint health.  A comprehensive analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials that assessed the efficacy of oral glucosamine and
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ARBINOGALACTAN: A NOVEL POLYSACCHARIDE WITH IMMUNE ENHANCING EFFECTS
Arabinogalactans are considered a type of water-soluble polysaccharide (complex carbohydrate) derived from plants, specifically the larch tree. Arabinogalactans have consistently shown immunomodulating effects in both animal and human studies. For example, arabinogalactan has been shown to increase NK cell numbers, decrease the proliferation of B cells and granulocytes, and affecting
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LOW CARBOHYDRATE-PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT BETTER THAN TRADITIONAL CARB-BASED DRINK
An emerging concept with growing support involves providing protein with carbohydrate, and in some cases using less carbohydrate. While it is true that strength and power athletes are well versed on the importance of consuming protein to promote muscle growth, most endurance athletes have not considered protein important because building
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ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE
Many studies have examined the metabolic and performance effects of caffeine ingestion. Caffeine can affect many tissues including the central nervous system, heart and vascular system, adipose tissue and others.  In addition to direct effects on these tissues, caffeine increases sympathetic activity (by increasing epinephrine secretion and sympathetic nervous system
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PROTEIN SPEEDS REHYDRATION AFTER EXERCISE
Water loss due to sweating after exercise can compromise recovery. Therefore, adequate fluid intake is important.  The composition of the fluid after exercise has been shown to be important in retaining the fluid. However, the role of protein in the recovery fluid has not been adequately studied. Given the positive
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ENHANCED BIOAVAILABILITY OF HMB
HMB, a metabolite of leucine, has been shown to decrease muscle damage and have anti-catabolic effects that could translate into greater gains in lean body mass and muscular adaptations to resistance training. We recently tested the effects of a supplement containing 1.5 g HMB and a blend of amino acids
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ADD INCREASING MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS TO THE LIST OF OMEGA 3 FATTY ACID BENEFITS
Fish and fish oils are rich in a type of fat called omega-3 fatty acids; the main two are called EPA and DHA.  There is no better example of bioactive nutrients that have such diverse health-promoting effects. Omega 3 fats are a normal constituent of every cell membrane along with
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WHEY VERSUS CASEIN: WHICH IS THE BETTER PROTEIN?
Whey and casein are both high quality proteins found in milk. Despite being the two predominant proteins in milk, they have unique characteristics. Two distinguishing features that may give whey an edge in terms of promoting muscle protein synthesis are its rapid absorption and higher leucine content. Researchers from the
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Brains and brawn
Every now and then some old or even ancient supplements are reborn by new research illustrating that they work in ways we could have never imagined, ginkgo biloba and rhodiola crenulata are two such supplements.  Traditionally, these ancient herbs have been used in Chinese medicine as nootropics ("smart drugs") to
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